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Friday, July 17, 2015

Learn about diabetes

8:04 AM

Learn about diabetes? Diabetes, also known as diabetes carbohydrate metabolism disorders due to pancreatic hormone insulin is missing or reduce the impact of substance the body makes blood glucose does not go to the cells indicated by results blood glucose levels are higher in the new stage play often do patients urination, nighttime urine and thereby thirsty.



Diabetes is one of the main causes of many fatal diseases, especially coronary heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney failure, impotence, gangrene, etc.

Diabetes is becoming pandemic concerns of society

According to statistics in the UK around 1.6 million people have diabetes. In the US, the number of people with diabetes increased from 5.3% in 1997 to 6.5% in 2003 and continue to rise rapidly. Persons over age 65 with diabetes twice as often as 45-54 years old.
In Vietnam, in 4 major cities of Hanoi, Hue and Ho Chi Minh City, Hai Phong, the rate of diabetes was 4%, particularly in the Hoan Kiem district (Hanoi) amounted to 7%. The majority of patients detected and treated late, system redundancy, early detection is not yet completed.
So, each year more than 70% of patients not detected and treated. The proportion with diabetes at ages 30-64 was 2.7%, plains, coastal 2.2%, 2.1% mountains. Without prevention and cure in time, the disease enjoy complications, 44% were diabetic neuropathy, kidney complications 71%, 8% eye complications.
Currently the world's estimated 190 million people have diabetes and this number continues to rise. Estimates that by 2010, over 221 million people world have diabetes. 2025 will amount to 330 million people (nearly 6% of the global population). Increasing incidence in developed countries is 42%, but in the developing countries (such as Vietnam) will be 170%.

Mechanism arising out of diabetes

To explore the mechanism of diabetes arises we can simulate the operation of the body as follows:
Pancreatic Insulin Producing = >> = >> Sugar (Glucose) = >> Born energy
Explain this process as follows: When we eat food will be converted into a starch glucose primary energy source of the body. To use the glucose then the pancreas to produce insulin and endocrine hormone in turn are responsible for helping transport glucose enters the cells in the body to generate energy. When the process operates an unusual manner ie not glucose is transported to cells, the result makes the blood glucose will always be high. This is the mechanism of forming diabetes.

Classification of Diabetes

Diabetes can have two main diseases: type 1 diabetes not on insulin secretion by the pancreas, and type 2 by insulin secretion and insulin resistance decreased.

Type 1 diabetes

Approximately 5-10% of patients with type 1 diabetes, the majority occurring in children and young adults (<30T). The symptoms usually starts suddenly and progress rapidly if not treated. Full development phase with absolute insulin deficiency causes hyperglycemia and infectious ketones.
The typical symptoms of type 1 diabetes are excessive urination, drinking more, sometimes eat much, blurred vision, paresthesia and weight loss, retarded children and vulnerable to infection.

Diabetes type 2

Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90-95% of patients with diabetes, common in the age of 40, but recently appeared more and more in their 30s and even teens ages.
Patients are less likely to have symptoms and often only be detected by the symptoms of complications, or only discovered by chance when blood tests before surgery or when there are complications such as myocardial infarction, stroke What color; While prolonged skin infection; female patients or itchy fungal infection vaginal area; men with impotence.

Gestational diabetes

The proportion of diabetes in pregnancy accounts for 3-5% of pregnancies; was first detected during pregnancy.

Diabetes diagnosis

Diabetes is a heterogeneous disease, there should be clinical symptoms. Type 2 diabetes has symptoms occur more mellow type 1.

Symptoms of diabetes

The common symptoms are frequent urination, eat more, drink more, faster weight loss are the symptoms seen in both categories.
Urine output usually 3-4 liters or more in 24 hours, the water in, when dried often leave stains or white patches.
Primary beams by polyuria night may be a sign of diabetes onset in childhood.
For patients with type 2 diabetes often do not have any symptoms in its early stages and so the disease is often diagnosed late 7-10 years (only testing blood sugar to allow diagnosis at this stage ).

Treatment of diabetes

Lifestyle and eating behavior

Good diet for any person with diabetes also need to satisfy the following basic elements:
- Enough Protein - Fat - Flour - Sugar - Vitamin - Salts - Water with reasonable volume.
- Not much postprandial hyperglycemia.
- Do hypoglycemia while away meals.
- Maintaining normal physical activity daily.
- Maintain your weight at an ideal weight or reducing weight to a reasonable level.
- No increased risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, kidney failure ...
- Consistent eating habits of geography, ethnicity of the patient and family.
- Simple and not too expensive.
- Do not change too fast and many structures as well as the volume of the meal.

Drug
Insulin (for diabetes typ1 format)

Based on the effects, experts divide the 03 group:
- Fast acting insulin: Insulin include hydrochloride, emulsions Insulin-zinc
- Insukin average effect: Isophan Insulin, Lente Insulin
- Slow acting insulin: protamine zinc insulin, insulin zinc slow action
Insulin is indicated for patients with diabetes under Typ1, it is only used for patients with type 2 diabetes when diet changes, exercise, and medications treating diabetes without effective synthesis
- Side Effects of Insulin: Allergies (after the first injection or multiple injections), lowering blood glucose (often when injecting overdoses), injection site reaction (itching, pain, stiffness injection site)

Drugs used in the form of type 2 diabetes

Sulfonyl urea derivatives, divided into 02 groups:
- Group 1: weak effects, including - Tolbutamid, Acetohexamid, Tolazamid, Clopropamid
- Group 2: a stronger effect, including - Glibenclamide, Glipizid, Gliclazide
The work group on hypoglycemia prevent pancreatic cells and stimulate creation Glucagon Beta cells secrete insulin in yet
- When using the Side Effects: lowered blood glucose, allergies, digestive disorders, haemolysis, agranulocytosis.

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